CRRF - UNHCR

6
MIRPS countries (Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama)
10
Cooperating states and entities supporting the MIRPS
180
Number of commitments by MIRPS countries and cooperating States
Over 1000
Persons of concern consulted in the process leading up to the MIRPS
291,400
Refugees and asylum seekers from NCA countries by end-2017
174,000
IDPs in Honduras between 2004-2014

Central America and Mexico

The Comprehensive Regional Protection and Solutions Framework (MIRPS)

Building on existing regional cooperation and responsibility-sharing, including the Brazil Plan of Action and the San Jose Action Statement, 6 States – Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Panama – adopted the San Pedro Sula Declaration on October 26, 2017, agreeing to work together in the ongoing development and implementation of a Comprehensive Regional Protection and Solutions Framework (MIRPS in its Spanish acronym).
The MIRPS is a pioneering initiative in the application of the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (Annex 1 of the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants) and a concrete contribution of the region in the development of the Global Compact on Refugees.


State-led process, multiple actors

The MIRPS is a State-led initiative, supported by UNHCR together with the wider UN system, the Organization of American States (OAS), the Central American Integration System (SICA) and a range of different cooperating States and actors. [1] The MIRPS is the result of an extensive consultation process that translated national priorities and commitments into comprehensive and detailed national plans. The MIRPS constitutes a regional cooperation framework between countries of origin, transit, and destination, that promotes shared responsibility mechanisms, strengthens protection, and enhances solutions for refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons, and returnees with protection needs. This regional process is also a clear expression of collaboration between governments, civil society, private sector, academia, regional and international organizations and development banks. The MIRPS serves as a practical tool to mobilize the support of the international community.


National action plans and regional cooperation 

The National Action Plans identify specific programmes and prioritized actions, as well as the corresponding resources needed to strengthen the national and international protection systems and promote comprehensive and sustainable solutions. The MIRPS also puts forward action plans by 15 regional and international organizations, including both SICA and the OAS, which complement the national chapters by proposing cross-border, coordinated programmes and initiatives. Further, the MIRPS includes ten cooperating States that have committed to actively support the MIRPS, identifying specific areas they will support through financial assistance and technical cooperation. In line with the spirit of the Brazil Plan of Action, four States from South America participate in this shared responsibility mechanism, as an example of South-South cooperation.

The United Nations Development Group for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNDG LAC), together with the Resident Coordinators of countries in the region, is developing a comprehensive approach aimed at significantly reducing levels of violence by 2030. The United Nations Joint Initiative is focused on prevention, protection, law enforcement and access to justice. Work is also underway to develop a violence reduction index, a strategic approach to support countries in addressing chronic violence, and a roadmap to encourage and increase flexible funding.


Major achievements

The MIRPS has been developed through government-led consultations with all stakeholders, including persons of concern, UN country teams, civil society, the private sector and academia acquiring a whole-of-society approach. Regional networks and organizations complement the national action plans and set up regional and global responsibility-sharing mechanisms to bring a regional dimension to the MIRPS.

    • As a direct result of the MIRPS, profiling exercises were undertaken in Belize, Honduras and Panama to identify persons with protection needs, including IDPs, which also provided important baseline data for programme development.
    • In Costa Rica, refugees and asylum-seekers have equal access to employment, and refugees living in vulnerable circumstances are now included in government-led welfare programmes.
    • Guatemala adopted a new migration code, which included provisions for refugees, and is setting up a new migration authority with increased focus on human rights. The protection of unaccompanied children was strengthened by increasing the capacity of the Guatemalan General Attorney’s Office and improving the infrastructure of reception centres.
    • Honduras created a dedicated Directorate for the protection and attention of IDPs within the new Ministry of Human Rights. A project for the protection of abandoned land was launched, and a draft law on IDPs is being considered by the National Congress.
    • With support from the private sector, steps have been taken to locally integrate refugees and enhance employment opportunities in the different asylum countries.
    • The Mexican Commission for Refugee Assistance (COMAR) began to issue a temporary population registration number for asylum-seekers, granting them access to formal employment, health care, education and other public and private services. As of August 2018, nearly 1500 asylum-seekers and refugees were released from detention with the support of UNHCR, in line with MIRPS commitments. Mexico has also taken steps to include refugees and asylum-seekers in the 2018 voluntary national review, reinforcing the Government’s commitment to the sustainable development goals.
    • Panama adopted a new decree to strengthen the asylum system and signed a protocol for the identification, referral and assistance of children in need of international protection.
    • A portfolio of 30 priority projects that dovetail with the longer-term operationalization of the three year national plans into joint programming and projects, engaging development partners and other key stakeholders has been developed. This initial investment aims to reinforce and promote the underlining partnerships that form the foundation of the MIRPS.
    • Although the MIRPS was initially conceptualized to respond to the NCA situation, the framework has proven to be adaptable to the regional situation, including the increasing number of Venezuelans and the influx of Nicaraguan refugees in the region.
    • United States, Canada, Australia and Uruguay have guaranteed their cooperation through expanding their countries quotas to the Protection Transfer Agreement (PTA). Argentina and Brazil have also have also expressed their commitment to participate in the PTA program in 2018.

Key documents


Follow-up mechanism

During the 48th session of the Organization of American States’ (OAS) General Assembly, held on June 5, 2018, its General Committee adopted a Resolution on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, presented by Mexico. The Resolution establishes an annual follow-up mechanism for the implementation of the Comprehensive Regional Protection and Solutions Framework in Central America and Mexico, the MIRPS, with technical support from the OAS General Secretariat and UNHCR.

Reporting at regional level will be complemented by a national monitoring mechanism that intends to track national commitments for the period covering 2018-2020. The OAS is also setting up a MIRPS support group comprised of MIRPS countries and cooperating States and institutions to facilitate the cooperation among actors and the negotiation of such a follow-up mechanism. The group will help convene an annual progress review meeting on the MIRPS in 2018, one year after the adoption of the San Pedro Sula Declaration.

The Central American Council of Ombudspersons also met to agree on a concrete programme of action to support the MIRPS for the period of 2018-2020, including joint border monitoring and advocacy campaigns for forcibly displaced persons.


Operational and funding needs to deliver on a comprehensive response

A quantification of national priorities and review of national budgets is underway to ensure national ownership of the CRRF and will be followed by the identification of international cooperation’s needs. As part of their involvement in the MIRPS, the UNDP and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) are providing support in this regard.

In the meantime, a portfolio of 30 priority projects that dovetail with the longer-term operationalization of the three year national plans into joint programming and projects, engaging development partners and other key stakeholders has been developed. The total amount required to fully implement those in 2018 is USD 23 million.

UNHCR’s budget under the NCA situation totals over USD 32 million for 2018. Check the Global Focus website for a funding update.


Regional contribution to the global compact on refugees

The countries and territories of Latin America and the Caribbean, assembled in Brasilia on 19 and 20 February 2018 to conduct the first triennial progress review on the implementation of the Brazil Plan of Action. As part of this review, preparatory meetings took place focusing on Quality of Asylum, the Eradication of Statelessness, Comprehensive Solutions with emphasis on Local Integration, Solidarity with the NCA countries, through the MIRPS, and Solidarity with the Caribbean. The 100 points of Brasilia constitutes the regional contribution to the Global Compact on Refugees. See the 100 Points of Brasilia (20 February 2018) here.

Regional and Thematic Consultations

Solidarity with the Northern Triangle of Central America (MIRPS) (26 October, 2017),  Eradication of Statelessness  report (2-3 November 2017), Comprehensive Solutions with emphasis on Local Integration report (2-3 November 2017), Quality of Asylum report (13-14 November 2017) and  Solidarity with the Caribbean report (4-6 December 2017)

These events took place thanks to the financial support of the European Union. Its resulting contents do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Union.


 


[1] The MIRPS application benefits from contributions of cooperating States, regional and international organizations and regional networks. Regional and international organizations and regional networks which function as cooperating actors are the Organization of American States (OAS), the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the General Secretariat of the Central American Integration System (SICA), the Secretariat of the Central American Social Integration System (SISCA), the Inter-American Development Bank, the UN Development Group for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNDG LAC), the Resident Coordinators the UN System in Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); the Central American Council of Human Rights Ombudsmen, the National Human Rights Commission of Mexico, the Latin American and Caribbean Ecclesiastic Network of Migration, Displacement, Asylum and Human Trafficking (CLAMOR); the Regional Network of Civil Society Organizations for Migration; the RRCOM Regional Plan of Action as contribution to the MIRPS (through UNHCR and OAS); the Risk, Emergency and Disaster Working Group for Latin American and the Caribbean (REDLAC); the Specialized Regional Group of Academics who support the MIRPS (GREAT MIRPS); and the Integrarse Network (Corporate Social Responsibility).

 

Contact person in UNHCR RO Panama

Diana Diaz Rodriguez (diazdi@unhcr.org)

Hugues Van Brabandt (vanbraba@unhcr.org)

Contact person in UNHCR Regional Bureau for the Americas 

Elisabet Diaz Sanmartin (DIAZSANM@unhcr.org)

MIRPS countries: 


Belize

Costa Rica

Guatemala

Honduras

Mexico

Panama


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Documents

Caravanas de refugiados y migrantes en Centro América: Respuesta del ACNUR

Central America and Mexico | Updates
196 KB

Desde mediados de octubre, diversos grupos organizados de personas ampliamente referidos como “caravanas”, salieron desde el Norte de Centro América, particularmente desde Honduras y El Salvador, en dirección norte del continente con la esperanza de llegar a México y a los Estados Unidos de América. En estos grupos están compuestos por personas que tienen necesidades de protección internacional, y según encuestas más de 70% de las personas en estas caravanas considera correr peligro si regresan a sus países. A mediados de noviembre, el número de personas que han transitado por Guatemala hacia el norte se estima en 16,000. La primera de cinco caravanas ha llegado ya norte de México, entre las cuales se encuentran alrededor de 4,600 personas. Frente a esta situación de movimientos mixtos de solicitantes de asilo y migrantes, el sistema de Naciones Unidas y socios en el terreno han estado apoyando a los gobiernos de los países de origen, tránsito y/o destino para dar una respuesta oportuna a las necesidades particulares, según el respectivo mandato.

Published: 3 April, 2018 (4 weeks ago )
Uploaded: 3 April, 2018 (4 weeks ago )

Integración local y medios de vida

Central America and Mexico | Studies and reports
564 KB

La integración local y los medios de vida son componentes clave para la protección de refugiados y solicitantes de asilo en sus países de acogida. La integración local incluye aspectos legales, económicos y culturales que les permite a refugiados integrarse completamente a su nueva sociedad. En particular, el aspecto económico de la integración local enfrenta a menudo obstáculos, siendo uno de los más importantes para acceder a servicios básicos y sostener a sus familias. Este documento detalla los avances, desafíos y pasos a seguir en la región, con el fin de cumplir con los compromisos adquiridos en el pilar cuatro (oportunidades de soluciones duraderas) del MIRPS.

Published: 3 April, 2018 (1 month ago )
Uploaded: 3 April, 2018 (1 month ago )

Fortalecimiento Comunitario

Central America and Mexico | Studies and reports
507 KB

Facilitar un ambiente seguro a personas desplazadas implica desafíos y oportunidades. Países y comunidades de acogida son actores clave para mantener una política de fronteras abiertas y proveer protección a personas que huyen de la persecución y el conflicto; en permitirles acceso a salud, educación, vivienda y empleo; y en aceptar e integrarles. El ACNUR trabaja de la mano con gobiernos y comunidades de acogida alrededor del mundo para promover la aceptación y entendimiento de la situación de los refugiados, y para dar luz sobre las contribuciones positivas que pueden hacer a las sociedades en donde han encontrado protección y hospitalidad. Este documento detalla los avances, desafíos y pasos a seguir en la región, con el fin de cumplir con los compromisos adquiridos en el pilar tres (apoyo a países y comunidades de acogida) del MIRPS.

Published: 3 April, 2018 (1 month ago )
Uploaded: 3 April, 2018 (1 month ago )

VSG y protección de la niñez

Central America and Mexico | Studies and reports
412 KB

La violencia generalizada en la región afecta desproporcionalmente a mujeres, niños, niñas y personas LGBTI. La discriminación, el reclutamiento y la violencia sexual y de género (VSG) son rampantes. Al huir de tal persecución, enfrentan mayores riesgos y victimización a lo largo de rutas peligrosas y son a menudo víctimas de redes de trata y grupos criminales. El MIRPS, desde sus inicios, ha invertido en la priorización de la protección de estos grupos vulnerables, en los países de origen, tránsito y asilo. Este documento detalla los avances, desafíos y pasos a seguir en la región, con el fin de cumplir con los compromisos adquiridos en el pilar dos (necesidades inmediatas y persistentes) del MIRPS.

Published: 3 April, 2018 (1 month ago )
Uploaded: 3 April, 2018 (1 month ago )

Mecanismo de Protección en Tránsito

Central America and Mexico | Studies and reports
576 KB

En años recientes, los países del Norte de Centroamérica – El Salvador, Honduras y Guatemala – han presenciado el incremento dramático de violencia por parte de pandillas urbanas y grupos de crimen organizado que causan el desplazamiento forzado de personas dentro y fuera de estos países. El PTA representa un mecanismo innovador que para algunas personas en alto riesgo significa la diferencia entre la vida y la muerte, quienes tendrían acceso seguro y legal a países de reasentamiento a través de un país de  tránsito. El programa es coordinado por el ACNUR, OIM, y la República de Costa Rica como país de tránsito, al igual que con los gobiernos de los tres países de origen, y los países de reasentamiento. Este documento detalla los avances, desafíos y pasos a seguir en la región, con el fin de cumplir con los compromisos adquiridos en el pilar cuatro (oportunidades de soluciones duraderas) del MIRPS.

Published: 3 April, 2018 (1 month ago )
Uploaded: 3 April, 2018 (1 month ago )

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